Systematic, self directed, needs-based, outcomes focused, continual process of learning and development, with application in professional practice

Source: Irish legislation 2015, as reported FIP Congress 2017: Session A2 How to develop people
  • occurs when people provide knowledge, experience, emotional, social or practical help to each other
  • is a system of giving and receiving help, founded on key principles of respect, shared responsibility, and mutual agreement of what is helpful
  • peer support is about people helping people, the understand the professional culture, are easily accessible, and can provide support in a variety of circumstances
  • online social networking sites can provide a practical way of accessing peer support remotely

(SOURCE: FIP Congress 2017: session A2 How to develop people)

  • is a form of development in which a person supports a learner or client in achieving a specific personal or professional goal by providing training and guidance
  • coaching differs from mentoring in focusing on specific tasks or objectives as opposed to overall development

Practice that is so significantly different from that achieved at initial registration that it warrants recognition by professional peers and the public of the expertise of the practitioner and the education, training and 
experience from which that capability was derived.

USA (1): This term is not used typically in the USA; with introductory pharmacy practice exercise (IPPE) and advance pharmacy practice exercise (APPE) being favoured; sometimes also called “rotations” as students tend to rotate through several placement sites.

USA (2): Could be thought of in many ways but oftentimes this refers to placement of a patient following discharge from the hospital to home, skilled nursing facility, acute rehab, long term care facility, hospice, etc. 

UK: Short term training

Rwanda: The action of being accepted at or assigned to an institution.

Australia: An undergraduate pharmacy student undertaking structured workplace experiential learning to support university based learning

Namibia: Experiential learning in a pharmacy practice setting during pre-service training. This includes pre-service training in a rural hospital setting, tertiary hospital, community pharmacy and industrial and/or regulatory pharmacy setting.

Rwanda: Similar to intern, but paid work with more responsibilities and less supervision compared to intern.

UK: Expert in their field/ excellence

USA (1): A pharmacy or medical postgraduate trainee with an emphasis on research

USA (2): Resident graduate who decides to further specialize in an area (ie: hematology, infectious diseases, transplant); seen as the closest point of contact in a specialty field- oftentimes managing multiple patient care activities as the same time

Australia: More experience pharmacist undertaking structured workplace in learning in conjunction with MClinPharm; generally in a specialised area.

Namibia: We don’t have this in Namibia and in most African countries.

Rwanda: Non-existent in pharmacy education. used for medical students as the post-graduation mandatory 2 years work for a government health facility.

UK: On site trainee/Health Care Professional

USA: (1) A recent pharmacy or medical graduate who is licensed/registered and in their first few years of (work-based) postgraduate training

USA: (2) Senior to intern (could be year 2-year 5 depending on the length of the residency); they oversee intern patient care activities and oftentimes direct educational activities as well.

Australia: Generally newly graduated pharmacist undertaking structured workplace learning (SHPA program); currently in general areas (specialty residencies to follow).

Namibia: We don’t have this in Namibia and also its not existent in most African countries. This mainly applies to the medical professionals who are undertaking a postgraduate programme such as MMED is a specific discipline such as Paediatrics

Rwanda: A student or recent graduate (trainee) who works to gain experience and work is not remunerated.

UK: Trainee

USA (1): First year medical resident/recent graduate from medical school; typically lowest person on the totem pole and POC for the pharmacist as they are the closest direct patient care medical professional

USA (2): A medical physician in their first year of post-graduate residency. Similarly, intern could also refer to pharmacy students completing their work related experiences through employment at a hospital or community pharmacy.

Australia: Provisionally registered pharmacist undertaking supervised practice with an approved preceptor

Namibia: A 1-2 year post training in a hospital or community pharmacy setting, that is regulated by the health professional council. At completion the intern pharmacists are assessed on competence in four areas - pharmaceutical care, pharmaceutical compounding, supply chain management , pharmaceutical information and counseling as well as ethics and laws.


A mentor is:

  • 'someone who provides an enabling relationship that facilitates another's personal growth and development. The relationship is dynamic, reciprocal and can be emotionally intense. Within such a relationship the mentor assists with career development and guides the mentee through the organisational, social and political networks' (Morton-Cooper 2000)
  • The mentor is responsible for providing support to, and feedback on, the mentee

(Source: FIP Congress 2017: A2 How to develop people)

*is a system under which a senior or more experienced individual (the mentor) is assigned/agrees to act as an advisor, counselor or guide to a junior or less experienced person
*is a two way relationship whereby the mentee should be the driver of the process, fr it is the mentee's needs that will be addressed
(Source FIP Congress 2017 Session A2: How to develop people)