Rwanda: Non-existent in pharmacy education. used for medical students as the post-graduation mandatory 2 years work for a government health facility.

UK: On site trainee/Health Care Professional

USA: (1) A recent pharmacy or medical graduate who is licensed/registered and in their first few years of (work-based) postgraduate training

USA: (2) Senior to intern (could be year 2-year 5 depending on the length of the residency); they oversee intern patient care activities and oftentimes direct educational activities as well.

Australia: Generally newly graduated pharmacist undertaking structured workplace learning (SHPA program); currently in general areas (specialty residencies to follow).

Namibia: We don’t have this in Namibia and also its not existent in most African countries. This mainly applies to the medical professionals who are undertaking a postgraduate programme such as MMED is a specific discipline such as Paediatrics

Rwanda: A student or recent graduate (trainee) who works to gain experience and work is not remunerated.

UK: Trainee

USA (1): First year medical resident/recent graduate from medical school; typically lowest person on the totem pole and POC for the pharmacist as they are the closest direct patient care medical professional

USA (2): A medical physician in their first year of post-graduate residency. Similarly, intern could also refer to pharmacy students completing their work related experiences through employment at a hospital or community pharmacy.

Australia: Provisionally registered pharmacist undertaking supervised practice with an approved preceptor

Namibia: A 1-2 year post training in a hospital or community pharmacy setting, that is regulated by the health professional council. At completion the intern pharmacists are assessed on competence in four areas - pharmaceutical care, pharmaceutical compounding, supply chain management , pharmaceutical information and counseling as well as ethics and laws.

A medicine that is available to patients without the requirement for a prescription.

A medical product that does not need a prescription.



Continuing Education: Learning undertaken by adults beyond school years. CE is often delivered in the form of evening classes.


Continuing Professional Development: Tracking and documenting the skills, knowledge and experience gained formally and informally at work and though training, beyond initial qualification.

A student on the first year of an undergraduate degree programme.

A student in the first year of a degree programme.

Freshman USA

1 Synonyms

A student attending the first year of a undergraduate degree program.


Board certification through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties determines which pharmacists are qualified to contribute at advanced practice levels in the USA.