Practice that is so significantly different from that achieved at initial registration that it warrants recognition by professional peers and the public of the expertise of the practitioner and the education, training and 
experience from which that capability was derived.


Board certification through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties determines which pharmacists are qualified to contribute at advanced practice levels in the USA.



Continuing Education: Learning undertaken by adults beyond school years. CE is often delivered in the form of evening classes.

  • is a form of development in which a person supports a learner or client in achieving a specific personal or professional goal by providing training and guidance
  • coaching differs from mentoring in focusing on specific tasks or objectives as opposed to overall development


Continuing Professional Development: Tracking and documenting the skills, knowledge and experience gained formally and informally at work and though training, beyond initial qualification.

Systematic, self directed, needs-based, outcomes focused, continual process of learning and development, with application in professional practice

Source: Irish legislation 2015, as reported FIP Congress 2017: Session A2 How to develop people


Rwanda: Similar to intern, but paid work with more responsibilities and less supervision compared to intern.

UK: Expert in their field/ excellence

USA (1): A pharmacy or medical postgraduate trainee with an emphasis on research

USA (2): Resident graduate who decides to further specialize in an area (ie: hematology, infectious diseases, transplant); seen as the closest point of contact in a specialty field- oftentimes managing multiple patient care activities as the same time

Australia: More experience pharmacist undertaking structured workplace in learning in conjunction with MClinPharm; generally in a specialised area.

Namibia: We don’t have this in Namibia and in most African countries.

A student in the first year of a degree programme.

A student on the first year of an undergraduate degree programme.

Freshman USA

1 Synonyms

A student attending the first year of a undergraduate degree program.